The measures will also increase spending and oversight in some states, even as Republicans are focused on cutting budgets and decreasing regulations.
Tennessee Secretary of State Tre Hargett, a Republican, said he believes his state's proposed photo ID law will increase citizen confidence in the process and combat fraud that could be going undetected.
Party leaders advanced several ID proposals in March with successful votes in Alabama, Arkansas, Kansas, Ohio and Texas.
About half of states are considering measures to create or strengthen ID requirements this year, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. Many are considering stringent controls that would mirror laws in Georgia and Indiana that require voters who don't have photo ID at the polls to return to election offices within days and produce that kind of identification in order to get their votes counted.
In the South, the issue comes with a burden of history for black residents who recall past barriers to voting, such as violence, literacy tests and other methods. The Voting Rights Act still requires a number of Southern states to get Justice Department approval of redistricting efforts to ensure that minorities' voting strength is upheld.
William Barber, president of North Carolina's chapter of the NAACP, said the photo ID measure amounts to “nothing but nuanced, 21st Century Jim Crow.”
Henry Frye recalled the literacy test he failed in 1956 after he'd returned from serving in the Air Force and tried to register to vote. One of the questions asked him to name a U.S. president — the 13th, if he remembers correctly.
Frye, who eventually became North Carolina's first black Supreme Court justice, spent 14 years as a lawmaker in the General Assembly and focused much of his time trying to make it easier for people to register and vote. He said the photo ID measure appears to be a first step back in the wrong direction.
“I think we need to do what we can to encourage voting rather than discourage voting,” Frye said.
Elections officials in North Carolina said most of the voting fraud allegations they investigate turn out to be unfounded. Over the past five years, the state has referred about 350 cases to district attorneys for investigation, mostly in cases of felons who cast ballots without first getting their voting rights restored. There are more than six million registered voters in the state.
States already have ways to check the identity of voters when they register and when they go to cast a ballot. North Carolina's current law requires residents to provide documents proving their name and address in order to register to vote. Those who register improperly can be charged with a felony.
At the polls, North Carolina voters must declare their valid name and address in order to get their ballot. Impersonating another registered voter is also a felony, as is voting more than once in an election.
In Georgia, which has had a strict voter ID law on the books for years, Republican Secretary of State Brian Kemp said he's not aware of anyone caught committing fraud. He argues that the rules help prevent people who try to file improper votes from having them counted.
Estimated costs vary for states to implement the changes and provide picture IDs for those who don't already have a driver's license or other qualifying identification. North Carolina estimates a cost of more than $3 million in the first year and about $400,000 each year going forward. Missouri estimates that a proposal in that state could also cost millions. Texas would spend $2 million in the coming year to implement the law there.
Tennessee's law wouldn't require the state to provide IDs, so Hargett believes the cost would be minimal.
Many of the state efforts are coming due to increased GOP influence, as Republicans now control 25 state legislatures and 29 governor's offices.