graduation_cap_2.jpgNEW  YORK — Getting into college is a full-time job for many high schoolers, especially those receiving little help from guidance counselors and without the money to hire private consultants.

From resume building and campus tours to test prep and essay writing, there's a lot for kids to contend with and a lot for parents who may not have gone through the process themselves.

College admissions officials and paid helpers urge families to stretch the application process over all four years of high school to make it less of a mad dash and more of a marathon. Try this timeline to break down the to-do list:


Freshman Year

Enroll in rigorous classes, said Jim Montoya, a former admissions dean at Stanford and Vassar and a vice president of the College Board. The board ( administers SAT, Advanced Placement testing and SAT Subject Tests.

If you have a specific college in mind this early, check its academic requirements online and find the school on Facebook for up-to-date chatter and official announcements.

Generally, colleges prefer four years of English, as well as history, math, science and a foreign language, Montoya said. Explore SAT Subject Tests in your strongest classes and expect to take them while the material is fresh. Some colleges require subject tests. Either way, it wouldn't hurt to throw them into the mix.

Visit a college informally when school is in session, especially if you've never stepped foot on a campus. Formal touring can wait. The idea is to provide a glimpse into college life.

Make a long-term commitment to an extracurricular activity and community service. Don't pile on the extras. Choose things you truly love and work toward making a significant contribution over four years.

If financial aid is in your future, learn how to find it and how to apply for it. Have a heart-to-heart talk with your parents on money matters. Begin looking into how scholarships work and what the FAFSA is (it's the Free Application for Federal Student Aid).

Sophomore  Year

Think about when to take the practice SAT or ACT college entrance exams. The preliminary SAT, called the PSAT, is given in October and is combined with the National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test. Free online practice and prep books are everywhere.

The College Board suggests using your access code on your PSAT score report to sign in to the board's “My College QuickStart,” a personalized planning kit to help prepare for the real SAT using a study strategy based on your preliminary results.

Taking practice exams for both the SAT and the ACT will help you decide which is the better test for you. Test-optional schools do exist. Go to for a look at more than 800 four-year colleges that don't require them.

Start thinking about what areas of the country appeal to you. Would you like to land on a small campus or a large one, an Ivy or a liberal arts school, in a rural, suburban or urban setting? Take every opportunity to visit a wide range of campuses to help you decide.

Begin exploring what you might like to study in college. There may be something you haven't thought of that appeals to you or connects in an unusual but valuable way to an existing area of interest. is a trove of information. It includes a college search tool and heavy message traffic from young people if you're looking to network.

Junior  Year

It's crunch time.

There are nearly 4,500 degree-granting, two- and four-year colleges and universities in the United States. A high school junior should have a list of between five and 20 they wish to tour formally, including information sessions with college officials.

Scheduling tours during the summer between 10th and 11th grades may come in handy but note that campus life can look sparse without many students around.

No way to visit every campus on your list? Check to see if your choice is among more than 3,000 virtual tours available. offers a more limited selection.


Request information packets from chosen schools but keep in mind that glossy brochures and sweeping mission statements don't tell the whole story. Dig deep into department pages on school websites and check out faculty profiles, Merrill said.

Seek out students or alumni either online or through friends, family and recruiter visits scheduled nearby or at your high school.

By 11th grade, a high-schooler should have paid a call on the guidance counselor, though public school counselors are stretched to the limit. They'll meet with you in junior year but the number of visits might be restricted to just a couple, so be well prepared to review your transcript and talk about specific college and financial aid options.

Junior year is also the time to schedule the SAT or ACT.


The ACT is an achievement test measuring what a student has learned in school, according to the website of the American College Testing Programs Inc. which administers it. The SAT is more of an aptitude test, covering reasoning and verbal abilities.

The SAT is administered seven times a year — in October, November, December, January, March, May and June, always on Saturday mornings. The ACT is given six times a year — in September, October, December, February, April and June.


Special arrangements can be made. Test sites fill up so book early. Both tests cost money but need-based waivers are available. You can take them more than once. Some colleges allow you to send them your best scores but others require the results of all attempts.

This is also the year that students consider which teachers, coaches and other grownups they will hit up for letters of recommendation, so make nice.

Some experts suggest putting together a rough draft of the essay in junior year and honing it later on. At the very least, the essay shouldn't be left until the last minute.


Continue your “education” on how to seek financial aid. Know the difference between need-based aid and merit-based aid and how to access grants (free money) versus applying for loans that must be repaid.

Seek out adult mentors to see you through the application process if your guidance counselor and parents can't handle the job, said Kate Schrauth, executive director of, an online educational and career mentoring program for at-risk young people.

Senior  Year

Welcome to the home stretch.

Montoya suggests making a master calendar to keep track of test dates, fees and deadlines, including those for retakes of the SAT or ACT and tests on Advanced Placement courses and subjects. College application and financial aid deadlines should be included. So should a list of those who plan to write recommendation letters, whom to ask for transcripts and when they're due.

Now's the time to dig into the essay and begin work on applications, including the FAFSA form and scholarships. Let your parents handle the easy stuff like filling in names, addresses and the like while you concentrate on the essay and other more personal touches.

Many schools use the “common application” but some have their own systems. Regardless, most are filed online.

It's also the time to determine whether you'll seek “early decision” at a specific school, meaning you're committed to accept if you get in. Early decision and early action, which is nonbinding but states a strong preference, allow you to apply earlier and hear back early while also applying to other schools.

Don't forget to request a final transcript at the end of senior year.

And don't think senior year is a time to slack off.